Products

Garage doors and shutters

OUTDOOR ROLLER SHUTTERS

ЛLINK offers a wide variety of shutters - exterior and interior. The exterior shutters can be of aluminum or PVC, with significantly lower price. They are additional barrier that contributes to heat and sound insulation. Several types of external shutters drive are offered :

  • with cord
  • with hand crank
  • with electric motor, with possibility for remote control

The interior shutters offered by the company can be horizontal aluminum, the so called Venetian blinds and vertical – made of cloth.

GARAGE ROLLER DOORS WITH REMOTE CONTROL

Made entirely of aluminum profiles, with a filler of polyurethane and powered by electric motor and crank. They are an additional barrier that contributes to the better heat and sound insulation.

 

 

GLASSES AND GLASS PACKETS

As a part of the wall structure, windows must protect the premises from rain, wind, snow and extreme temperatures, but they also have to assist the natural ventilation to pass the necessary quantities of sunlight and contribute to the aesthetic appearance of the entire facade. This makes the choice of window or glazing a sufficiently responsible job in the conditions of the modern design.
The low emissivity glasses are an adequate solution. They provide entry into the premises of the solar radiation and, at the same time, prevent thermal radiation to go out. Because of this selectivity, low emissivity glasses are also called selective. Due to them, the annually necessary electricity can be reduced by 30 to 60% which, combined with a well designed and implemented quality wall insulation, ensures a high level of energy efficiency. Low emissivity glasses represent float glass with a special transparent, low emissivity coating (hard or soft) applied in a different technological method on the one side of the sheet during the production. In order to utilize their energy efficient qualities in the greatest extent, this type of glass is used in the manufacture of glass packet, always being placed on the inside wall of the glass packet, to the room. They are not used for single glazing because they are ineffective in this application.

Basic principles

Speaking of low emissivity glass, we should define the basic concepts related to the solar energy and the principles underlying the technology for the production of low emissivity glass. As it is known, the solar radiation is divided into three parts, depending on the wavelength - ultraviolet, visible (short-wave) and infrared (long-wave). The latter actually represents the solar heat. These are the wavelengths from 780 nm to 5000 nm, which can pass through the facade glazing and thus contribute to increase the heat gains from solar radiation in the total energy balance. In addition to this direct solar heat, there is a secondary heat radiation from all objects which generally absorb solar radiation in the ultraviolet and visible area of the spectrum. The secondary radiation are wavelengths from 5000 nm to 50 000 nm, which are absent from the solar spectrum. In the same area falls also the heat emitted by electrical appliances, heating devices, the human body, i.e. internal heat sources for the building. In order to achieve good insulating effect, glasses must be manufactured with a special coating that provides a high degree of light transmission and short-wave infrared energy and at the same time reflecting the waves of long-wave infrared range (above 5000 nm). The structure of the coating should be such as to minimize heat loss in the room, without reducing the brightness and to limit the access of solar heat. Moreover, in accordance with other features of the windows in the buildings, it is necessary that the glass has a uniform color, sufficient mechanical and chemical resistance, allowing the appropriate treatment and resistance to heat, bending and laminating guaranteeing universal application. When choosing thermal insulating glass, several indicators values should be monitored - transmission, reflection, absorption, solar and spectral factor, and coefficient of thermal conductivity. The rate of transmission, reflection and absorption of energy is measured by the coefficients T, R and A respectively. They are expressed as a percentage - what part of the solar energy fallen on the glass is transmitted in the room, reflected by its surface or absorbed by it and their sum is always 100%. The solar factor (g) is also an important feature of the glasses used in construction and architecture. Its physical meaning is the percentage of solar radiation passed through the glass into the room in comparison with the total flow of radiation fallen on it. It means that this coefficient takes into account not only the directly passed energy and the ability of the glass to pass it, but also the secondary radiation of energy absorbed by the glass. Spectral factor (s) is particularly important for low emissivity windows, because it characterizes the ability of the glass to transmit sunlight. Its value is formulated as the ratio of the visible light passed to the solar energy passed. In the colorless float, the spectral factor is one which means that it transmits all the light and heat of solar radiation. The maximum theoretically possible value of the spectral factor is s = 2. The coefficient of heat transfer for the glazed part of the facade shall be formulated in exactly the same manner as that of the walls. It represents the ratio of the heat flow density to the temperature difference between the ambient temperatures on both sides of the glazing unit. Its recommended values, depending on the intended use of the building, are specified in the respective regulation documents. Its value is highly dependent on the slope of the glazing, being drastically increased in greater slopes. It should be taken into account that in the companies catalogs and tables the values are always given for a completely vertical glazing.

Types of low emissivity coatings

The most commonly used materials for low emissivity coatings are the metal oxides - silver, gold, titanium, zinc. The coating is applied by using pyrolytic and electrovacuum technology. Pyrolytic coatings are applied while still the glass is in the hot phase in the leer. These coatings are called pyrophoric because they are obtained due to pyrolysis (thermal decomposition) of gases, liquids or powder materials, pulverized on the hot glass. Thereby layers of metal oxides are formed which are soldered to the glass and as a result the end products are very stable and can be thermally treated (quenching and bending). The only inconvenience is that they are available in a limited color range. The coatings applied by pyrolytic technology are also called hard coatings. In the electrovacuum technology the coatings are applied on the glass after its cutting. The process is carried out in a vacuum chamber, in an argon environment, to which is added, if necessary, active gas (carbon, oxygen or nitrogen). Electrical voltage of 500 Volts is fed, resulting in the formation of plasma arc and the argon atoms are split into electrons and positive ions, which subsequently shall be attracted by a target made of the coating material. Since the particles move at a high speed, they kill atoms from lattice of the target substance which condense on the pad (glass). The process allows a very fine adjustment of the operating parameters resulting in uniform coatings on large surfaces. Since it is theoretically possible for any non-magnetic material to be used for target and be sputtered under this procedure, a variety of coatings and combinations exists in the vacuum method. If the working environment is argon, metal coatings shall be obtained, and in oxygen or nitrogen environment – oxides and nitrides respectively. The light transmittance and color depend on the type of the coating and its thickness. The coating produced in this manner is called a magnetron coating and it can be hard or soft. The disadvantage of the “soft” coating is that it is not as abrasion resistant as the hard one. This embarrasses the transportation but given that the coating is on the internal side of the glass, the glass operational properties are not infringed. A typical example is the triple layer low emissivity coating where the functional component is a layer of silver, gold or copper situated between two layers of tin oxide. The latter ensures good adhesion of the coating to the glass, at the same time protecting it from corrosion. The thickness of the individual layers shall be chosen as per the requirements for light transmittance and the requested thermo-technical indices.

Sun protection and low emissivity glass

Sun protection glass is often confused with the low emissivity glass. This is because they also belong to the group of selective glasses and their specific properties are also due to the coating. The difference comes from the fact that the sun protection glass restricts also the entry into the room of the short-wave solar radiation, thereby reducing the total heat load of the premises. This prevents the heat accumulation, reducing the chances of overheating and facilitates the work of the air conditioning system. Despite the limitation of penetrating heat, sun protection glass provides good natural illuminance. Most of them pass 65-75% of the light and only 30-35% of the infrared rays. The mechanism of action, sun protection glasses can be divided into two groups - selectively reflecting and selectively absorbing the radiation. The products from the first group represent colorless or tinted glass panels, on the one side of which a thin transparent layer of metal oxides, ceramic or polymeric compounds is applied in the production process. It defines the property of the glass to reflect the most part of rays falling on it. In the cases of glass absorbing the radiation, the active compounds from the surface absorb a significant part of the sun rays. Practice has shown that the low solar factor (s) always guarantees the best sun protection. The ability of sun protection glass to transmit, absorb and reflect the light depends mainly on the chemical composition of the coating, but when it is equal the thickness has also an effect. Solar protection glass is used with particular success in the glazing of high and medium-high office buildings with large glass facades, administrative and public buildings, shields and shelters, both concerning new construction and renovation of existing buildings. It is very appropriate to apply it in buildings with active use of air conditioning systems because it significantly facilitates the work of the latter during the hot days. Of particular interest is the so-called solar low emissivity glass which is multifunctional – it combines sun protection and thermal protection functions. Their coating is multilayer, comprising layers of different metals located between resistant adhesive and covering coating. By using them, maximum energy savings are achieved because they reduce both heating costs in winter and these for cooling in the summer. However, it should not be forgotten that the glass is only one component of the window. The energy characteristics of the entire unit may differ significantly from those of the glass. In order to achieve energy efficiency, an attention should be paid to the framed profile and the connection area between the two elements. In addition, at the design stage, before proceeding to the choice of glazing, it is appropriate to take into account the surface of the building, the type of heating and cooling systems and the type and thickness of the facade insulation. All these factors influence the choice of window and if a right approach is chosen, they provide maximum energy savings and comfort of the occupants during the whole lifetime of the building.

What are the disadvantages of the "garage" glass packets:

  • Inaccurate cutting, the maximum deviation from the specified size must not exceed 1 mm
  • micro-cracks occurring in the process of assembling the glass packet in the area of contact with the spacer
  • Use of “economy class” sealants, in other words - of low quality. Moreover, spillage of the sealant outside the necessary area
  • If in the glass is mounted low emissivity (K) glass, the non removal of the specific coating in the area of contact with the spacer shall result in corrosion and depressurization

In order to avoid problems, it is best to deal with manufacturers who can provide a quality certificate for the glass packets manufactured by them.

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